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Tuesday, August 29, 2023

Aditya-L1 Mission: ચંદ્ર બાદ હવે સૂર્ય મિશનની આવી ગઇ તારીખ, 2 સપ્ટેમ્બરે થશે લોન્ચ FULL DETAILS

Aditya-L1 Mission: ચંદ્ર બાદ હવે સૂર્ય મિશનની આવી ગઇ તારીખ, 2 સપ્ટેમ્બરે થશે લોન્ચ FULL DETAILS

What is the Aditya-L1 mission?

The Aditya-L1 mission will see the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) lift the 1,475-kg spacecraft into an elliptical orbit around Earth. The spacecraft, which will carry seven scientific payloads, is more than twice as light as the one on the Moon.

Aditya L1 will be the first space-based Indian mission to study the Sun. The spacecraft will be placed in a halo orbit around the Sun-Earth system's Lagrange point 1 (L1), which is about 1.5 million km from Earth. The main advantage of a satellite placed in a halo orbit around the L1 point is to see the Sun continuously without any occultation/eclipse. This will provide the added benefit of observing solar activity and its impact on space weather in real time. The spacecraft carries seven payloads to observe the photosphere, chromosphere, and outermost layers of the Sun (the corona) using electromagnetic and particle and magnetic field detectors. Using the special vantage point L1, four payloads look directly at the Sun and the remaining three payloads study particles and fields in-situ at Lagrange point L1, thus providing an important scientific study of the propagating effect of solar motion in the interplanetary medium.

Suits of Aditya L1 payloads are expected to provide the most important information to understand the problem of coronal heating, coronal mass ejection, pre-flare and flare activities and their characteristics, dynamics of space weather, propagation of particles and fields etc.

More details

Aditya-L1 Mission Booklet

Aditya-L1 mission and science payloads


Objectives of Science:

The main science objectives of the Aditya-L1 mission are:

Study of solar upper atmospheric (chromosphere and corona) dynamics.

Study of chromospheric and coronal heating, physics of partially ionized plasma, initiation of coronal mass ejections and flares

Observe in-situ particle and plasma environments providing data for studying particle dynamics from the Sun.

અહીંથી જુઓ સૂર્ય મિશન લાઈવ

Physics of the solar corona and its heating mechanism.

Diagnostics of Coronal and Coronal Loops Plasma: Temperature, Velocity and Density.

Development, dynamics and origin of CMEs.

Identify the sequence of processes occurring at multiple levels (chromosphere, base, and extended corona) that ultimately lead to solar flare events.

Magnetic field topology and magnetic field measurements in the solar corona.

Drivers for space weather (origin, structure and dynamics of the solar wind.

As defined by NASA, a Lagrange point is a position in space where "the gravitational pull of two large masses equals the centripetal force required to move a smaller object with them. These points in space are used to reduce the fuel consumption required by spacecraft to stay in position. can be." Basically, this means that at that point, the gravitational attraction and repulsion between the two celestial bodies is such that an object placed between them will effectively remain in the same relative position while orbiting them.

Lagrange points are named after Italian-French mathematician Josephi-Louis Lagrange and there are five of them: L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5. According to NASA, "The L1 point of the Earth-Sun system provides an uninterrupted view of the Sun and is currently home to the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite SOHO."

ઈસરો ની સાઇટ પર લાઈવ જોવા અહી ક્લિક કરો

અહીંથી જુઓ સૂર્ય મિશન લાઈવ

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope is on L2. “The special feature of this orbit is that it allows the telescope to remain in line with the Earth as it orbits the Sun. This allows the satellite's large sunshield to shield the telescope from light and heat from the Sun and Earth (and Moon)," says NASA's website.

What will the Aditya-L1 mission study?

The spacecraft carried seven payloads to observe the photosphere [the deepest layer of the Sun that we can directly observe], the chromosphere [the layer about 400 km and 2,100 km above the photosphere] and the Sun's outermost layers (the corona). Electromagnetic and particle and magnetic field detectors. Of the seven payloads, four will study the Sun directly, and the remaining three will study particles and fields located at the Lagrange point L1, "thus providing an important scientific study of the effect of propagation of solar dynamics in the interplanetary medium," ISRO said. .

"The suits of Aditya L1 payloads are expected to provide the most important information to understand the problem of coronal heating, coronal mass ejection, pre-flare and flare activities and their characteristics, dynamics of space weather, propagation of particles and fields etc." ISRO release says.

Why is it important to study the Sun?

Every planet, including Earth and exoplanets outside the solar system, evolves — and this evolution is driven by its parent star. Solar weather and environment affect the weather of the entire system. These weather variations can change the orbits of satellites or shorten their lives, interfere or damage them.

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Wednesday, August 23, 2023

Chandrayaan-3 Moon Landing Live Updates

Chandrayaan-3 Moon Landing Live Updates

Chandrayaan-3 Moon Landing Live Updates: After a 40-day journey that began from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) Chandrayaan-3 mission is now gearing up for landing. If all goes well, the Vikram lander should make a soft lunar landing on August 23 at 6.04 PM IST. You can watch the live stream of the landing below. It will start at 5.27 PM IST.

Ahead of the launch, ISRO said it was ready to initiate the mission's automated landing sequence. The space agency plans to do it at 5.44 pm IST. From this point, the Vikram lander would attempt a soft-landing on the Moon using its on-board computers and logic.

The Chandrayaan-3 mission is a follow-up to the 2019 Chandrayaan-2 mission, when the Vikram lander crashed on the lunar surface. The mission's primary objective is simple - demonstrate the space agency's ability to complete a soft-landing on the Moon.

If the mission succeeds, India will join the small and exclusive club of countries that have succeeded in soft landing on the Moon. So far, the club has three members - the United States, the Soviet Union and China. Russia made its first attempt to land on the moon since 1976 (when it was part of the Soviet Union) with the Luna-25 mission.

Luna-25 met the same fate as Chandrayaan-2 and the Russian space agency announced on Sunday that it crashed on the lunar surface. Interestingly, Luna-25 aimed to be the first mission to land on the Moon's South Pole - the goal of both Chandrayaan-2 and Chandrayaan-3. Now only India has a horse in the race.

After separation from the propulsion module, the Chandrayaan-3 lander was in communication with the orbiter of the Chandrayaan-2 mission, which has been orbiting the Moon for the past four years.

The Chandrayaan-2 orbiter has already played an important role in the mission by identifying a safe location for Chandrayaan-3 to land. But the former will continue to play a role, acting as a communications relay between the new lander and the ground station. The lander will send data to the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, which, in turn, will send data to ISRO ground stations and partner agencies.


Major improvements in Chandrayaan-3

ISRO chief S Somnath said the upgrade to the mission was "failure-based", meaning scientists looked at what went wrong in the Chandrayaan-2 mission to improve its successor. Here are some improvements.

Reinforced legs: The legs of the new Vikram lander have been strengthened to ensure that it can land safely at a speed of 10.8 kmph. Of course, this may not be really useful in a situation like Chandrayaan-2, which was traveling at around 580 kmph when the lander crashed.

Larger fuel tank: The Chandrayaan-3 mission carries more fuel than its predecessor to ensure that it can make last-minute changes if required.

More solar panels: The new Vikram lander has solar panels on all four faces instead of just two, as seen with its predecessor.

Additional equipment and improved software: More crucially, the Chandrayaan-3 mission has additional equipment and improvements to its software to aid soft-landing efforts. This includes a laser Doppler velocimeter, which will fire a laser beam at the lunar surface to calculate the lander's speed. The updated software has multiple redundancies that will help it cope with various situations.

Four stages of landing

The "15 minutes of terror" that make up the last moments of the Chandrayaan-3 mission before landing consist of four phases:

Rough breaking phase: During this phase, the horizontal speed of the lander should decrease from about 6,000 kilometers per hour to close to zero for a soft landing.

Attitude hold phase: At an altitude of about 7.43 km above the lunar surface, the lander will tilt from horizontal to vertical while covering a distance of 3.48 km.

Fine breaking phase: This will last for about 175 seconds, during which, the lander will travel about 28.52 km horizontally to the landing site while losing about 1 km in altitude. Chandrayaan-2 lost control between the attitude hold and fine braking phases.

Terminal Descent: This is the final stage when the fully vertical lander must descend to the lunar surface.

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